Modern difficulties in development of science and technology in nigeria


This paper examined many attempts that have been made to establish science and technology considering that its introduction into the faculty procedure when the early Christian missionary arrived in Nigeria. The paper further more reviewed various difficulties to the development of science and technology in Nigeria. Suggestions were being made for its development in Nigeria.



Growth of science and technology in Nigeria has not been encouraging considering that the introduction of sciences into faculty curriculum from the time of the early Christian missionary to Nigeria. Science teaching in most Nigerian educational institutions was just Character Review before 1930 (Abdullahi, 1982). Nigerian has not obtained substantially in science and technology and this is why we are still categorized as acquiring nation. The so named created nations obtained their prosperity by way of scientific improvement (Abdullahi, 1982). Country that is underdeveloped in science will not equally establish technologically for the reason that science and technology are jointly science offer with assortment of info by way of scientific procedures and technology uses the info to obtain solutions to simple problems.

Quite a few attempts has been made by many govt in Nigeria to establish science ever before unbiased one particular of this kind of is adjusted of the concept of Normal science as a subject to be made available up to the University Certificate to this kind of subjects as biology, chemistry and physics. Later development place enrolment in secondary faculty at ratio sixty:40 involving Science and Arts subjects. One particular major hard work aimed at the development of science was the coming jointly of all science instructors in 1957 to inaugurate the Science Teachers’ Affiliation of Nigeria (STAN). The association is involved with the teaching of science by way of inquiry and discovery strategy in which pupils occur to fully grasp and establish science ideas by investigating and experimenting on their possess (Abdullahi, 1982).

Complex faculties, School of Arts, Science and Technology, Colleges of education Complex, Polytechnics and Universities of Technology were being all recognized in the nation in a quest to establish science and technology. The procedure of education was adjusted from the one particular inherited from our colonial grasp to 6-3-3-four procedure of education. According to Rufai (2007) the 6-3-3-four plan is fundamental for the so substantially desired technological breakthrough and the govt has made her stand obvious by stating her dedication to scientific and technological improvement of the country.  Equipment were being brought from foreign nations around the world to assure that this procedure labored and instructors were being sent to abroad for further more scientific studies to allow them in good shape in to the news procedure of education.

 With all these attempts made at acquiring science and technology and considering its value to reaching self reliance of a nation as claimed by Adebayo (2001) that there is will need for nations to establish scientifically and technologically for the reason that of the part it plays in reaching self reliance. There are still lots of difficulties to the development of science and technology in Nigeria that make her far driving other nations of the globe.

Modern Challenges


For science and technology to be created to meet the globe regular as it is in the created nations right now there have to be adequate methods to train science at all stage of education. Ajileye (2006) opined that insufficient methods for teaching and understanding of science constitute a major result in of students’ achievements. This insufficient source consists of laboratories, science products, and specimens utilized as teaching aids. Growth of science and technology are not able to be separated from the excellent of college student a nation is manufacturing from her educational institutions.

Waziri (2002) noticed that hundreds of thousands of naira-value of products purchased for the development of introductory technology is still lying uninstalled due to absence of ideal workshops and laboratories. Nations that do not have laboratories, science products and specimens to train pupils will surely deliver very poor pupils in science and technology who are to turn out to be engineers and experts tomorrow. An crucial source in the development of science and technology is qualified trainer. Waziri (2002) claimed the shortage of qualified instructors for vocational- technological education programme brought about mostly by very poor payment as as opposed to the additional eye-catching chances in field and commerce.

Complex faculties are not extended taken critical lots of of these faculties have been closed down for the reason that they absence pupils and dedication by the govt. These technological faculties are extremely crucial for the instruction of talent craftsman and artisans that are extremely vital to the technological development of any nation.

Basis of Science

Basis is extremely crucial in any challenge and that is why there is will need for a sound foundation for audio science education from key faculty by way of excellent system of teaching and effectively composition curriculum. Akinola (2006) was of the opinion that pupils failed science for the reason that of teacher’s methodology and the structuring of the curriculum. Science teaching is not taken critical in lots of of our key educational institutions this can make a course trainer who is not a properly trained science trainer to be teaching science. It is only in secondary faculty we have instructors specialised in subject areas but in key science instructors are ‘multipurpose’ which is extremely completely wrong. What do you hope from a trainer who is a graduate of social scientific studies teaching science in key faculty? At his or her most effective would conclude up in destroying the scientific skill of the pupils. The summary is that a negative scientific seed is planted and when it germinates we need to not hope something better. According to Oyedele (2007) science education is the ‘seed ‘to be planted if technological development is to be generated. He claimed if Nigeria is to be among the the superior societies of the globe, equipped with present day technology of her possess building, she need to get ready her citizens for long run roles of predicating them on sound and audio science education. Nigeria small children are extremely excellent, smart and can contend with their counterpart in any section of the globe if they have excellent trainer who teaches with excellent strategies. In the opinion of Oyedele (2007) the common Nigerian boy or girl is able, smart and gifted in all spheres of existence.

High quality of Education

The excellent of Nigerian education is very poor due to very poor leadership and corruption. Ogunwoye (2003) claimed absence of trainer determination, recognition and reward guide to very poor excellent of education. Nigeria govt do not value education and that mirror in their funds every single 12 months. They gave extremely little allocation to education as as opposed to safety forgetting that education is capital intensive. They make insufficient fund out there to get and maintained laboratories and workshop products. Idris (2002) noticed absence of funds to procure necessary spare areas to maintain the products for technological education. The challenges of our govt in accordance to Adedibu (2001) in formulating audio goals and most effective solutions to our problems have resulted in the mismanagement of methods, completely wrong planning and misplaced of developmental priorities this has poorly affected our instructional procedure in modern many years.


Societal angle

Nigerian society is a major challenge to our development of science and technology. An common Nigerian do not have complete self confidence in any improvement made by his or her fellow Nigerian in the subject of science and technology for the reason that in accordance to Adedibu (2001) they have substantially respect for items from other nations at the expenditure of regionally generated items and this is having an adverse influence on our technological development. Until eventually we find out to settle for and respect our indigenous hard work in the subject of science and technology and respect our Nigeria made items we could not make substantially development in science and technology. Some Nigerian experienced made significance progress in medication primarily in combating HIV/AIDS but for the reason that they are Nigerians no one recognises their attempts but negatively criticized.

Institutional rivalry

A further challenge to the development of science and technology in Nigeria is rivalry involving many establishments primarily involving university and polytechnics (Katende, 2007). Where by these establishments meant to work jointly as companions in progress to establish science and technology they are concentrating on which one particular is superior in certification. According to Mfon (2007) if the polytechnic, university, govt and other stakeholders work jointly towards analysis aims, our march to technological and scientific breakthrough will be at sight.

Technological transfer

Over dependence on foreign aids in form of technological transfer is a further challenge. According to Adedibu (2001) technological transfer is a approach of acquisition of technological instruction that can support a nation technological development from other nations. The getting nation is expected to manage, maintain, replicate and strengthen on this technology by way of analysis without the support of the marketing country. Having said that, Nigeria scenario is various we have been tied to the apron of the marketing country. There is absolutely nothing negative in technological transfer but the approach have to finish by cease dependent on the marketing nation and this guide to our technological development.

Instructional components

Shortage and insufficient use of instructional material for teaching and understanding of sciences in educational institutions is a critical challenge in most Nigerian educational institutions. Kola (2007) claimed the will need for the use of instructional aids in teaching physics in Nigerian educational institutions are not able to be overemphasized. The instructors are more than dependent on foreign made or better named ‘already made’ apparatus, the vast majority do not have the skill to improvise for the reward of their pupils. According to Daniel (2001), instructors will need to be exposed to the output and understanding components using out there methods primarily at this age of facts technology. The table under exhibit instructional material uses for teaching and understanding physics in two local govt secondary educational institutions in a state in Nigeria.


Instructional material

Percentage of utilized (%)

Percentage not utilized (%)



Audio tape













Printed components




















group methods




Supply: Kola (2007).


Science and technology is extremely crucial to the advancement of a country and for that reason its development have to be giving a notable situation in the governance of any nation. It is evident from the above discussion that science and technology has not been effectively created due to difficulties that can be triumph over if we are figure out to do so. Most of these difficulties are manmade difficulties that can be triumph over.


Because of the very important part of science and technology in the development of a nation I will like to make the next recommendation for its development in Nigeria.

It is crucial to start out the development of science from the key faculty by way of the use of discovery system of teaching. This allow pupil appreciates science and also be innovative in their strategy to science alternatively than the typical observe of memorization. Key faculty instructors who are not science trainer need to not be allowed to train science as from the existing system where course instructors are made to train all subjects in his or her course together with science. Science instructors have to be separate from other subjects as it is finished in secondary educational institutions.

Science instructors have to be inspired, enthusiastic and send for further more instruction in their subject of scientific studies regularly. Attendance of seminar, conferences and workshops have to form section of science teacher’s promotion at all degrees.

Complex faculties have to be resuscitated in all state of the country and govt need to make enough funds out there for the instruction of technological instructors the two regionally and overseas. Funds need to also be presented for the purchase of technological equipments and creating of present day technological workshop.

Professionalism have to be strictly adhere to in teaching, it need to not just be anybody that can go to classroom and train, it have to be skilled instructors. This is crucial for the reason that of the system of teaching and right improvisation of science instructional components.

Nigerian need to have respect, value and patronise our regionally made items govt need to count it as a prison offence for any person rejecting or disdain items deliver in Nigeria.

Federal government need to improve our analysis establishments to minimize country more than dependence on foreign aids and assistance to manage, maintain, and replicate technological instruction received from other nations alternatively than still dependent on them right after long decades of gotten it.

Finally our govt need to make education to be very first in the nation’s funds as there is no nation that can expand above the stage of her education.


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