Comparision of WAN Technologies


Comparison of WAN Technologies


The advances systems this sort of as ISDN, Frame Relay, ATM and SDH/SONET are being integrated for the data and voice website traffic being transmitted about the internet. In olden times the phone traces employed carried voice website traffic in the sort of analog and ended up know as Simple Old Phone System (POTS), but at present the telephones and the personal computers use digital technology for the voice and data website traffic. Equipment like modems are being employed to change analog into digital and vice versa. As far more and far more peoples are utilizing internet the data and voice website traffic is being transmitted about the same line. In my report I will concentrate on some of the fashionable systems for voice and data website traffic and the devices that are being employed for the goal in the Wide Place Network. At present the most emerging technology being employed in the Wan is VOIP. It transmits voice about the internet utilizing the packets. The users can transmit audio and video about a data network. The analog signal is converted into digital utilizing the modem. The modem converts analog signals into tiny digital packets to be transmitted about the network. At the receiver end the data is demodulated and the file is converted into an AVG file. This method is being employed in VOIP, Video conferencing and streaming of audio and video clips on the internet. With this the WAN systems are emerging and numerous WAN devices are being employed.

Wide Place NETWORKS:

A number of Area Place Network connected is know as Wide Place Network. This helps in transmitting data to for a longer time distances utilizing a one network. Greater case in point for this would be diverse branches of a organization close to the environment are interconnected utilizing the Wide Place Network. The branches use LAN in the branch and WAN in between diverse branches which helps the enterprise to mature at a quicker tempo and with security.

WAN Equipment:

The several WAN devices available in the sector are being produced on the traces of dependability and security of the network. Some of them are


In the network a router helps to join just one or far more than just one personal computers. Commonly for household users they are handy in taking a one broadband relationship and spreading

Figure: Router

it to other personal computers. Backbone of an internet is ordinarily by industrial routers which are employed in the telecom sector. Every router has a desk configured to make connections which guide to a group of IP addresses. The routing desk also have the regulations to cope with diverse forms of website traffic.


A swap is each so frequently named a ‘intelligent hub’, and at the present that they are no for a longer time noticeably far more expensive than the hubs they have approximately replaced them fully. A swap functions alike as a hub, with the goal …

Technology Dictionary: Convey Your Feelings With Tech Key Phrases


The technological conditions are those people which are made use of by the industry experts in any marketplace most generally by those people in the field of computer systems. They use these conditions to converse with the people today in their field quickly and truly feel relaxed to express items by employing technological vital text. It is difficult for a frequent gentleman out of this field to recognize these techy conditions and in that situation will come the entry of “Complex or technology dictionary” to support you out with effortless strategies of comprehending these stuffs.

The principal purpose guiding the style and design or generation of the technology dictionary is to make sense of what these technological conditions really suggests to you. Though this could look as a specialized language to the layman, the technology dictionary would make it effortless for them and offers them an assurance of ease and comfort to understand these conditions rapidly.

The technology dictionary is all about the higher definitions made use of in the IT field and the computer linked conditions. It consist of all type of pertinent definitions made use of in the technological marketplace and is not confined to any variety of programming languages, components or software package, any higher level OS or networking, electronics or telecommunications and many more linked items. The technology marketplace addresses all the technological conditions and the technology dictionary aims to include the clarification for all these type of linked conditions and definitions.

It is normally really worth likely via the tips in the technology dictionary before peeping into the stuffs offered in them. The tips will give you a apparent stroll via on how to understand and when to use the unusual text that are made use of in the computer marketplace. Also, 1 more thing to be understood is that ‘technology’ does not end with computer and linked marketplace but also it is unfold over all fields where innovative and imaginative items have their roots.

Consequently, technology dictionary is all about the collaboration of computing, networking and all the linked conditions of the technological database in the entire world. The conditions and acronyms offered in the technology dictionary endows with the definitions and meanings of them in the broader space of information and facts technology, science and computer systems. The creators and information and facts vendors of technology dictionary are the industry experts who are seasoned in these fields. All these information and facts offered will save the time that they devote to lookup for the meanings of these tech conditions to their comprehending. The technology dictionary is also useful to people today operating in technology, computer systems, proprietors of these fields and even to the probable purchasers.

There are books and CDs and DVDs readily available for mastering all these technological conditions and definitions but the technology dictionary addresses the full strategy of people’s expectation and no term could be explained as ‘missed out’ in the dictionary. The dictionary is organized in the user’s …

The 10 Best Resources For Options

Where We Are Able to Buy Spy Gears

There are a lot of spy movies that we have already seen and it surely have made us interested in becoming one. There are a lot of kids that are fans of spy heroes and would surely want to experience doing all of the things that their favorite character would do. One of the few things that people like about spies is that they are irresistible to attractive women and they would also have the chance to use advanced weapons that would have wonderful features. Because of all of the influence that children would have from spy movies, they take a lot of interest in also being a spy. Children would surely want to have some toys that may be similar to what spies are using that is why you should know that there are also manufacturers that develop spy gears and gadgets that are suitable for children. You would surely be able to make your children a lot happier if you would get them toys of spy gears as they are able to use it in order to act as their favorite spy. Spy gears nowadays that children are able to play with are much more advanced and have much better features than what you can find decades ago because of the technology that we have today.

You would surely make your child be more amazed with the spy gears that are sold as toys in our times today as they are science related and would have features that would surely be interesting for children. Spy gears and toys are properly regulated before they go out in the market that is why you should know that you would not have any kind of problems in buying them for your children. One of the most interesting spy gears that you can find in the market are night goggles as it would enable you to have night vision which could help you see even in the dark. There are also listening devices that are used as spy gears that are available for children and it would enable to let them hear secret conversations that would make them feel like a real spy. There are also communication devices that children are able to use to contact the people that they are playing with like walkie talkies as it is able to help them communicate with one another even when they are far away from each other. Having spy gears can be a lot of fun as it would enable you or your children to act like a spy but you should also make sure that you are able to look for ones that would have a good quality.

Advanced reading: great site

Negative effects of present day working day technology

Given that the industrial revolution, culture has come to be a lot more and a lot more dependent on technology. So a lot so that we in some cases deficiency the willingness to think just before we act. We come to be impatient if it usually takes a lot more than a several seconds to download a copy of the morning news paper. We anticipate fast responses to our email, and we anticipate another person to solution their mobile cell phone any time and where ever we get in touch with. “Industrialization resulted in rapid and sustained economic progress and a substantial improve in shopper goods. But at the similar time, for lots of men and women it intended a completely disagreeable do the job environment.”1

Men and women in today’s culture are often searching for approaches to enhance their existence and in some way assist deal with their actual physical environment. Agriculture Farming and cattle herding led to the progress of significant, settled human populations and growing opposition for effective lands, touching off organized warfare. The will need for transportation brought autos into the market. The will need for employees brought mechanical robots into culture. Battles more than land brought on the will need for refined weapons. The agricultural procedure brought on a revolution.

The creation of the tv has brought all sorts of leisure into our houses with movie and audio mixed. Just before 1950, newspapers and radio were the only approaches to deliver media or leisure into the house. Mass generation and other work prospects brought lots of men and women from the rural spots and farms into the city. Society is a lot more reliant on technology than at any time just before. Though technologies have their strengths there is a negative impact to all this technology as perfectly. Technology can basically harm culture somewhat then assist it. Competition involving businesses or even towns can in some cases make our lives for even even worse. When a city builds a lot more streets to catch the attention of visitors, the outcome is a lot more website traffic, not fewer. Even items we choose for granted these types of as the vehicle have negative impact on us. Since the vehicles cause air pollution and that can undoubtedly harm us bit by bit.

Know-how is creating us so bust that we can cant even come across time to invest with our closed one’ would be astonishing to know that men and women are in contact through chat and on the internet messaging although they are in similar city .for the reason that they think its a lot more more quickly and powerful but they are forgetting that meeting personaly can in no way substitute on the internet chatting.

Just before the advent of tv and internet, men and women had approaches of acquiring enjoyment collectively each individual working day .lots of of these primitive procedures of enjoyment have almost disappeared in the morden earth .men and women applied …

Computing For Senior Citizens – Why Seniors Should Have Personal computers

For quite a few persons, computing is a device that enables folks to have a interest both right, for case in point, by receiving info from the internet or indirectly, i.e. a particular person likes to cook dinner and consequently visits the Foods Channel on line for recipes. What about computing for seniors? What can a senior do with a computer and the internet?

Very first of all, who are senior citizens? Numerous persons are bewildered by the term “senior”. Really normally we see adverts expressing, for case in point, “More than fifty five senior discount obtainable”. Many others may think of “seniors” as folks at retirement age which technically would be 62 to 65 many years aged and some think of seniors as living in retirement houses. For the sake of this report I’m heading to look at “seniors” as currently being age fifty and more mature (in portion simply because one can be a part of AARP at age fifty).

For some at any age, working with a computer is a terrifying endeavor, regretably. It is, consequently, not unreasonable to think that seniors would have an even a lot more tough time knowing computer systems and computing. For myself (I am 60) I have been involved with computer systems considering the fact that the times of the Commodore sixty four (close to 1980) and even owned a TRS 80 Coloration computer from Radio Shack (with an wonderful 16K of memory)! For me working with a computer is not so daunting – not the similar for quite a few other individuals on the other hand.

The variance concerning right now and many years long gone by is that modern-day computer systems have so quite a few a lot more apps obtainable than at any time. All through the 80’s the computer authorized us to do uncomplicated term processing and idiot close to with distribute sheet calculations as nicely as game enjoying. The 90’s gave us the internet and that adjusted the way we thought about the usefulness of computer systems endlessly. Right now we have mobile telephones with functioning techniques that give us the globe in a bundle we can maintain in one hand. Personal computers are also somewhat less difficult to use right now (not usually!) considering the fact that quite a few apps are graphically driven and operated with mouse clicks.

How does this implement to seniors and how can seniors just take advantage of the computer globe right now? Let’s glimpse at what seniors have obtainable to them via computing.

Social Networking: Facebook, MySpace or just uncomplicated emailing is out there. They price nothing at all, can be enjoyable and educational and can continue to keep seniors linked with persons heading again to their superior faculty many years.

Running a blog: A great way for seniors to specific their pursuits and distribute the term. A website does not have to be public and can be a great way to share info with household and friends.


The Evolution of Website Design

Website design is an intricate part of the Internet as it is what constructs its body. From the early days when people barely understand it to the present when HTML and other languages are being taught to people as young as grade school students. While web technology is still evolving as we speak, the foundations of website design and its undeniable importance will never be extinguished.

Basically, website design is the all-important process of conceptualizing, planning, modeling, and creating what is known as the main delivery vessel of media content via the Internet, which takes form due to the use of markup languages and other technologies. The resulting product is then made suitable for conversion and display by a web browser or any other such software.

The delivery of content with website design involves many different implementations like markup languages (HTML, XHTML, XML), plug-ins (Flash, QuickTime Java), and so on. These are used to encode and lay out different forms of media like text, images, videos, Flash, and others into a comprehensible medium for viewing. The web pages that we browse through everyday are all results of website design.

The recent improvements on website design include those of web browsers’ compliance with W3C standards, which spurred on the use of XHTML and XML in correlation to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), which has revolutionized the customization of web layouts. This and many other improvements have made website design accessible to web users. Nowadays, anyone can be a webmaster with the right tools and the proper knowledge.

There are two types of pages produced by website design: static and dynamic pages. The former don’t change form until manually manipulated, which means that they have to be tended to constantly for updates. The latter, however, change form and content according to input and interaction, as well as changes in environment; including that of the user, time, changes in database, and so on. This means that they adapt to input on the client side, bringing in a more user-oriented development of a website. They involve the use of client-side scripting languages like JavaScript, Jscript, Actionscript, and so on. They usually can be seen in forms of server-side scripting languages like PHP, ASP, JSP, Python, and so on. They can be seen all over the Internet with different functionalities according to purpose.

It all started with the advent of the mainstream Internet brought on by the pioneer Tim Berners-Lee, who published what was to be known as a website on August 1991. He was the first person to combine what was then the main function of the Internet, which was communication (email, Usenet, BBS), along with hypertext. The latter had been used for quite some time, but was limited to browsing information within a single computer. This was the start of the Hypertext Transfer Markup Language, or HTML, which would then revolutionize how information was distributed, giving birth to what came to be known as the information superhighway and ushering in what is now known …

On the internet Promoting Companies in India

The number of net surfers in India is expanding at a immediate amount and reports have proven that folks are spending much more and much more time on the internet. Acquiring merchandise on the net is convenient, problem-cost-free and quick. On the internet sector locations enable prospective buyers to see the finest bargains offered with out going from their desks and decide on the merchandise they want which they could not obtain at the area grocery store. For a enterprise putting an ad on the net provides a profit of being present ideal future to your competition when folks are looking for merchandise or expert services. On the internet advertising and marketing companies in India are expanding in entire zoom!

On the internet Advertisement
India is a quickly expanding sector and media getting is getting to be a quite critical determination for all on the net spenders. The largest advantage of On the internet Advertisement is it helps you to track your user on the net and realize on the net buyer behavior.

World wide web advertising and marketing
On the internet advertising and marketing techniques and methods consist of a range of expert services such as lookup engine advertising and marketing (SEM) which is made up of lookup engine optimisation (SEO) and pay for every simply click (PPC), on the net show advertising, textual content-based advertising, behavioral advertising and marketing, program-based ads, e-mail advertising and marketing, newsletter advertising and marketing, affiliate advertising and marketing, internet press releases, interactive advertising, on the net sector investigation, and also Social Media Promoting Solutions such as blog advertising and marketing, and viral advertising and marketing. It also consists of the usage of preferred internet sites and portals.

What is Look for Motor Optimization?
Look for Motor Optimization (SEO) is the system of customizing and improvising a website for and escalating its rating on the Look for Motor Success Internet pages. It is one particular of the finest and the most affordable strategies to be certain very suitable reader site visitors. SEO is a established of methods to greatly enhance a website, generating it much more compatible to a lookup engine algorithm, by effectively formatting the code, content material and composition of the website, generating it keyword abundant and apt. It is utilised extensively, as a advertising and marketing method to make improvements to the SERPs( Look for Motor Rating of Internet pages).

Get to know about the hottest trend on the net!

Be it an revolutionary ecommerce internet solutions or productive Internet advertising and marketing method, it has become very important for the quite existence and further advancement of the enterprise. You get much more gains when you have a great connection with your buyers. Promoting a business on the net can be completed in lots of various strategies. The much more time and energy you commit to your internet business the a lot quicker it will grow. It does just take time to get founded on the internet but the advancement period …

SEO Optimization Computer software – Is Web2Mayhem Greater Than SE NUke?

The finest SEO optimization program available to internet entrepreneurs is obtaining completely ready to switch a new chapter. This article is likely to glance at the positive aspects of 2 S.E.O submission softwares in Web2Mayhem and SE nuke.

SE Nuke has been available to web entrepreneurs now for a few of years and has definitely gone through a revolution in that time. On the other hand, Web2Mayhem is currently being officially launched this month but the reality is, it has been available to an exclusive couple for about a year.

Obtaining made use of both equally extensively I often get requested my feelings on which 1 is finest but the reality is, even though the ability both equally have to slash down your do the job time to a minimum amount is unbeaten, it’s really hard to declare 1 is way far better than the other.

A Glimpse At SE Nuke

SE NUke is impressive in it’s own proper. With the program you are ready to conduct niche study, account generation, article and social community listing submission, rss submission, movie submission and web 2 profile generation.

it’s received a solid staff of overseers who persistently make updates guaranteeing this method won’t cough and splutter and will come with teaching video clips. What it does deficiency in my judgment is a impressive plan for users to follow and this is where Web2Mayhem certainly has the edge.

A Glimpse At Web2Mayhem

As a total method with both equally strategy and S.E.O program submission then Web2Mayhem has an edge. It incorporates considerable programs and a a few period marketing plan backed up by a routine maintenance period. It’s founder Jason Katzenback has been tests and using this method for at least 2 years and has normally had a staff of beta testers place it via it’s paces when it’s up-to-date.

The Web2Mayhem program features an account creator, RSS submitter, social bookmarker, movie sharer, article distributor, blog site poster, pad submitter – that is a forceful assembly of attributes and when made use of in conjunction with the programs, then you’ve got a true edge above the bulk of on the net entrepreneurs merely becuase more time is built available and you can build supplemental S.E.O campaigns to earnings from.

Web2Mayhem Advantages

The 2 big strengths Web2Mayhem has above SE nuke encompasses the ability for users to use their substantially praised blog site community, Syndicate Kahuna. Obtaining the ability to submit your content to a community comprising thousands of weblogs is potent for making high-quality backlinks.

The other big advantage is the truth this S.E.O optimization program will come from a poweful secure of prime program and product producers headed by Jason Katzenback and Jason Potash and with these fellows feeding on and breathing web marketing 24 several hours for every working day you know this method will be monitored fulltime by their staff of builders and testers.…

Internet Scams and Frauds

Web ripoffs and frauds are perpetrated throughout the world. With the common use of the Internet, these criminals have less complicated accessibility to their unsuspecting victims. The most crucial issue to do is to be vigilant and cautious so as to stay away from falling into their traps.

Incidents of ripoffs and frauds are rising every yr. Lots of individuals tumble victims to these crimes and lose hundreds, and some even hundreds of thousands of bucks. Nowadays, as scores of individuals are utilizing the Internet, criminals are using gain of this, and several of them are utilizing this technology as a suggests to boost their unlawful things to do.

The FBI been given many problems of on-line frauds and ripoffs. Primarily based on the report of Gartner, a exploration firm, there are about 10 million People in america who have been victimized by these criminals.

Phishing is the most recent sort of scam on the Internet. Scammers use e-mails to mail information of what appears to be to be a genuine website and ultimately, if not dismissed by the victim, inquire for his or her personalized information. Unknowingly, he or she is staying lured to a pretend website and the personalized information as a result acquired is misused. Right from there, stealing from financial institution accounts and credit score cards can start.

Auction Fraud
This is the place criminals post some objects that they market for low prices. What transpires up coming is that the scammer will inquire for the payment and assure to mail the product but sadly the victim will under no circumstances ever receive the merchandise. There are many techniques employed by these pretend sellers so that possible prospective buyers will not suspect one thing fishy is likely on.

Nigerian 419 Letter
This is the most well known Internet scam that has been spreading all close to the planet and has caused substantial loss of revenue to unsuspecting victims. The scammers will mail an e-mail, which goes one thing like this:

The letter will influence the victim to be an accomplice and that they will need to transfer the revenue to his or her account and they will assure a slice of about 30 to 40 p.c from the revenue sent to them. Later on, they will request the victim to travel in a distinct vacation spot to satisfy with them, to “get ready all required documents”. However, they will inquire for an progress price as payment for taxes, bribes and attorney’s price, right before they will transfer the resources. At times, if the victims happen to travel abroad as asked for by the scammers, they are kidnapped and not authorized to go until eventually they deliver the revenue that these criminals are inquiring for.

The letters fluctuate, but the exact same tale is …

The 10 Best Resources For Experts

Tips That You Need To Consider When Selecting A Web Hosting Service You need to know that for you to be able to select the best web hosting service out of the many web hosting services there is, you need to take into account some very important factors first. Of course, you would want to have a reliable service that does not only prevent any downtime from happening but also, offers a good customer support as well as a reasonable price. We have listed below some important factors and their corresponding questions that you need to consider first before you choose which among the web hosting services out there is the best one for your business. When it comes to choosing for the best web hosting service for your business, there really is a need for you to consider the price of the service itself. When it comes to the price of the service, it is very important for you to know about the amount they will be charging every month for the service they have rendered you and whether or not they have a setup fee. Almost all companies that are offering web hosting services are not offering any set up fees at all. However, you also need to know that there are other companies out there that are asking for set up fees and because of this, you need to see to it that you check for any issues of hidden cost that they may have prior to you signing up for any hosting companies. There is also a need for you to make sure that you are capable of paying the monthly fee they will asking you about.
What Do You Know About Webhosting
Aside from the price of the service, you also need to know about the amount of bandwidth they will be offering to you. You need to ascertain the amount of bandwidth that they will be allowing you to have before you to upgrade. Almost all of the web hosting service providers out there will allow a fair amount of bandwidth to every client they will have prior to them asking for an upgrade. If you are starting an online-based business, hosting companies will see to it that the bandwidth they will be giving to you is enough for you to be able to proceed with it and for you to be able to get a reasonable amount of traffic as well before you proceed on having an upgrade and increasing your monthly fee.
Looking On The Bright Side of Webhosting
Another very important factor that you need to take into account when you are to choose for a web hosting service suitable for your business is the features included in it wherein you need to see to it that there are enough features present in the basic package for you to start with your business.…

User Journey Mapping

User journey mapping is the phase by phase journey that a consumer usually takes to arrive at their target. In a website, for example, this journey will typically consist of a number of website pages and decision details that have the consumer from just one phase to an additional. The consumer journey is designed to map out the present journey a typical consumer may well consider to arrive at their precise target, and is then redesigned to type an ‘ideal’ journey. The output is traditionally a move diagram demonstrating just about every web page and decision place in the course of the whole method.

User journey mapping can also be recognised as ‘customer journey mapping’ or ‘user flows’ and are designed as component of the User Centred Layout method. The consumer journey is a valuable device to support in the growth of a wireframe prototype. The ideal journey for just about every typical scenario is employed to prioritise capabilities and material on just about every web page to support the consumer in achieving their target as immediately as achievable, and these priorities are translated into the wireframes.

A typical website consumer journey will begin at the property web page and end when the consumer leaves the website. However, to get a finish comprehension of the consumer journey, it is essential to evaluation the methods and decision making the consumer usually takes prior to landing on the website, and yet again when they go away the website. This builds a photograph of the finish journey and highlights in which the website life in the comprehensive journey, and hence what role it needs to play. This information and facts can then be employed to guidance the journey and support the consumer to arrive at their target. Whilst a website example is employed here, the method is the same for any touchpoint.


The map of the existing consumer journey provides a very clear perspective on how quick or hard it is for a typical consumer to arrive at their target. This map will speed up the organizing of a new growth because it straight away highlights the present troubles. If this map is then followed by an ideal consumer journey map, the undertaking team get a brief truly feel for how the website should do the job, what material and features is needed to meet the consumer needs, and what pages are needed to guidance the journey.

Producing the style and design all-around the consumer journeys also provides self-confidence that the final option will cater to the typical users’ needs.


The ideal journey can typically show to be hard to carry out, with small business goals and technical/style and design limitations impacting the capability to generate a brief journey, hence, it is essential to produce the ideal journeys with a multidisciplinary team to assure all angles are protected. Balancing consumer ambitions and small business ambitions is very essential at this stage to assure both are taken care of without the need …

Calibration For Company Working with Neuro Linguistic Programming NLP

Calibration in Neuro Linguistic Programming NLP refers to the talent of observing and listening for the unconscious responses that the folks all-around us (no matter if small business clientele, suppliers, colleagues, subordinates) provide us.

These unconscious responses provide clues as to the feelings that are passing through the thoughts of the other individual. By noticing these clues, we get perception that can help us to connect with both of those the conscious and unconscious thoughts, and turn into much more influential.


Surely we are not suggesting that a customer, sitting down in her own business, will expose her unconscious feelings to us? Indeed, she will and she does!

We ought to to begin with be informed that folks expose their unconscious feelings when they are emotionally invested in what they are speaking about. Usually when folks are speaking about purely small business issues they turn into much more guarded, or much more “consciously minded”, or in any other case much more hard to browse. Hence it is much easier to browse unconscious reaction when we direct a individual to turn into emotionally invested in what they are speaking about. In a small business surroundings, this implies that we ought to inquire concerns these as:

• What does this necessarily mean to you?
• Is this important to you?
• What will you get out of this?

When we inquire concerns that relate to how a job will have an impact on a individual independently, we are much much more most likely to get unconscious reaction.


So what would we be searching and listening for, to allow us to calibrate in NLP phrases, when we meet with a customer? Right here are some of the key clues that may well expose unconscious system:

EYE Actions

The way a person’s eyes transfer can tell us what they are pondering. “Eye accessing cues” as they are called are taught as element of any Neuro Linguistic Programming Practitioner Class.

Fundamentally we have a tendency to transfer our eyes a sure way, when we imagine in a sure way. By calibrating to how the individual in front of us thinks (no matter if a small business colleague of a customer) we can start out to figure out how they are pondering as we check out their eyes transfer.


Predicates refers to the sort of text that we use when we converse. In phrases of Neuro Linguistic Programming NLP, we theorize as follows: if a individual claims, “I see what you necessarily mean” it implies that they are observing a image. If they say, “That seems proper” then they are judging by hearing.

As we listen, truly listen to the text other people use, we may well start out to discover how they are pondering.


Many other clues can help us to realize how the other individual is pondering. These clues may well include:

• Breathing
• Posture
• Gestures
• Voice tone…